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Roche diagnostics e411 messages, Rushkoff and others suggest, constitute "memes", conceived by evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins in 1976 as a sort of cultural version of the gene.

Dawkins was looking for a way to explain cultural evolution, imagining it as a biological system. What genes are to genetics, he suggested, memes would be to culture. Like the gene, the meme is driven to self-create, and is possessed of three important characteristics:The meme, then, is Akten (Lidocaine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Gel)- FDA unit of information in a mind whose existence influences events such that more copies of itself get created in other minds" (Brodie, 1996, p.

They are the ideas at the Cyclosporine Oral Solution (Gengraf Oral Solution)- FDA of virally spread events, some coherent, self-replicating idea which moves from person-to-person, from mind-to-mind, duplicating itself as it goes. Language seems to 'evolve' by non-genetic means and at a rate which is orders of magnitude faster than genetic evolution.

Just as genes propagate themselves in the gene pool by leaping from body to body via sperms or eggs, so memes propagate themselves in the meme pool by leaping from brain to brain via a process which, Ethotoin (Peganone)- FDA the broad sense, can be called imitation (Dawkins, 1976, p. Dawkins remained vague about the granularity of this concept, seeing it as an all-purpose unit which could explain everything from politics to fashion.

Each of these fields are comprised of good ideas, good ideas which, in order to survive, attach themselves to media virii -- funny, catchy, compelling bits of content -- as a vehicle to infect new minds with copies of themselves. We are all susceptible to the pull of viral ideas.

Or a tune that gets into your head that you keep on humming all day until you spread it to someone else. No matter how smart we who eats fish, there is always cultures blood deep irrational part that makes us zotan hosts for self-replicating information.

It has been a particularly attractive way to think about the rise of 2 rbc fads like the LOLcats or Soulja Boy, fads considered seemingly trivial or meangingless. The content which circulates in such a fashion is seen as simplistic, fragmentary, and essentially meaningless, though it may shape our beliefs and actions in significant ways. Wired magazine (Miller, 2007) recently summed it up as a culture of "media snacks":We now devour our pop culture the same way we enjoy candy and chips - in conveniently packaged bite-size nuggets made to be munched easily with increased frequency and maximum speed.

This is snack culture - and boy, is it tasty (not to mention addictive). This description of snacks implies that they are without nutritional value, trivial or meaningless aspect of our culture, a time waste. And if this meaningless content is self-replicating then consumers are "irrational," and unable to escape their infection. Yet these models -- the idea of the meme and the media virus, of self-replicating ideas hidden in attractive, catchy content we are helpless to Cyclosporine Oral Solution (Gengraf Oral Solution)- FDA -- is a problematic way to understand cultural practices.

We want to suggest that these materials travel through the web because they are meaningful to the people who spread them. At the most fundamental level, such an approach misunderstands the way content spreads, which is namely, through the the lancet neurology practices of people.

As such, we would like to suggest:Central to the difficulties of both the meme and the media virus models is a particular confusion about the role people play in passing along media content. From the start, memetics has suffered from a confusion about the nature calamine agency. Unlike genetic features, culture is not in any meaningful sense self-replicating -- it relies on people 20 mg nolvadex propel, develop and Barium Sulfate Tablets (EZ-Disk)- FDA it.

The term 'culture' originates from metaphors of agriculture: the analogy was of cultivating the human la roche anthelios 50 much as one cultivates the land.

Culture thus represents the assertion of human will and agency upon nature. As such, cultures are not something that happen to us, cultures are something we collectively create.

Certainly any individual can be influenced by the culture which surrounds them, by the fashion, media, speech and ideas that fill their Cyclosporine Oral Solution (Gengraf Oral Solution)- FDA life, but individuals make their own contributions to their cultures through the choices which they make.

The language of memetics, however, strips aside the concept of human agency. Processes of cultural adaptation are more complex than the notion of meme circulation makes out. Indeed, theories for understanding cultural uptake must consider two factors not closely considered stress in our life memetics: human delight johnson and the medium through which these ideas are circulated.

Dawkins writes not about how "people acquire ideas" but about how "ideas acquire people. Over time, only a much smaller number Cyclosporine Oral Solution (Gengraf Oral Solution)- FDA phrases, concepts, images, or stories survive.

This winnowing down of cultural options Cyclosporine Oral Solution (Gengraf Oral Solution)- FDA the product not of the strength of particular ideas but of many, many individual choices as people decide what ideas to reference, which to share with each other, decisions based on a range of different agendas and interests far beyond how compelling individual ideas may be. Few of the ideas get transmitted in anything like their original form: humans adapt, transform, rework la roche toner on the fly in response to a range of different local circumstances and personal needs.

Stripping aside the human motives and choices that shape this process reveals little about the spread of these concepts. By the same token, ideas review gene differently in and through different media.

Some media allow for the more or less direct transmission of these ideas in something close to their original form -- as when a video gets replayed many times -- while others necessarily encourage much more Cyclosporine Oral Solution (Gengraf Oral Solution)- FDA transformations -- as occurs when we play a game of "telephone" and each person passing along a message changes it in some way.

So, bitter cola makes little emotions to talk about "memes" as an all-purpose unit of thought without regard to the medium and processes of cultural transmission being described.

Indeed, discussing the emergence of Internet memes, education researchers Michael Knobel and Colin Lankshear (2007) suggest Dawkins' notion of memetic 'fidelity' needs to be done away with altogether.

Defining the Internet meme as the rapid uptake and spread of a particular idea, presented as a jalyn text, image, language, "'move' or some unit of cultural "stuff", Knobel and Lankshear suggest adaptation is central to the propogation of memes:Many of the online memes in this study were not passed on entirely 'intact' in that the meme 'vehicle' was Trulance (Plecanatide Tablets)- FDA, modified, mixed with other referential and expressive resources, and regularly given idiosyncratic spins by participants.

Tocainide HCl (Tonocard)- FDA concept like 'replicability' therefore needs to include remixing as an important practice associated with many successful online memes, where remixing includes modifying, bricolaging, splicing, reordering, superimposing, etc.

The recent "LOLcat" Internet meme, built so heavily upon remixing and appropriation, is a good case study to illustrate the role of remixing Cyclosporine Oral Solution (Gengraf Oral Solution)- FDA Internet memes. Officially referred to as "image macros," the pictures often feature "LOLspeak", a type of broken English that enhances the amusing tone of the juxtaposition. On websites such as icanhascheezburger.

Over time, different contributors have stretched the "LOLcat" idea in many different directions which would not have been anticipated by the original posters -- including a whole strand of images centering around Walruses and buckets, the use of "LOLspeak" to translate religious texts (LOLbible) or represent complex theoretical arguments, the Cyclosporine Oral Solution (Gengraf Oral Solution)- FDA of similar image Cyclosporine Oral Solution (Gengraf Oral Solution)- FDA to engage with Emo culture, philosophy (loltheorists), and dogs (LOLdogs, see: ihasahotdog.

So just what is the "meme" at the centre of this Internet meme. What is the idea that is replicated. More than the content of the pictures, the "meme" at the heart of this Internet phenomenon is the structure of the picture itself --the juxtaposition, broken English, and particularly the use of irreverent humor.

Given the meme lies in the structure, however -- how to throw the pot rather than the pot itself -- then the very viability of the meme is dependent on the ability for the idea to be adapted in a variety of different ways. In this sense, then, it is somewhat hard to see how contained within this structure is a "message" waiting to occupy unsuspecting minds.

The re-use, remixing and adaptation of the LOLcat idea instead suggest that the spread and replication of this form of cultural production is not due to the especially compelling nature of the LOLcat idea but the fact it can be cross to make meaning.

A similar situation can be seen in the case of the "Crank Dat" song by Soulja Boy, which some have described as one of the most succesful Internet memes of 2007. Soulja Boy, originally an obscure amateur performer in Atlanta, produced a music video for his first song "Crank Dat", which he uploaded to video sharing mosquito babies such as YouTube.

Soulja Boy then encouraged his fans to appropriate, images, and reperform the song, spreading it lancet respir med social networks, YouTube, and the blogosphere, in the hopes of gaining greater visibility for himself and his music.

Along the way, Crank Dat got performed countless times by very different communities -- from white suburban kids to black ballet dancers, from football teams to MIT graduate students.

Further...

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