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Merchants, nobles, large landowners, and other local elites were usually among the first ind eng chem res convert.

By the eleventh century Muslims are believed to have outnumbered Christians in Al-Andalus. Crops and farming techniques introduced by Invokamet (Canagliflozin and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA Arabs, led to a remarkable expansion of agriculture, which had been in decline since Roman times.

Outside the cities, the mixture of large estates and small farms that existed in Roman times remained largely intact because Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners.

The long period of expansion of the Christian kingdoms, beginning in 722 with the Muslim defeat in the battle of Covadonga and the creation of the Christian kingdom of Asturias, only 11 years after the Moorish invasion, is called the Reconquista.

As early as 739 Muslim forces were driven out of Galicia, which came to host one of Christianity's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela. Areas in the northern mountains and around Barcelona were soon captured by Frankish and local forces, providing a base for Spain's Christians.

The 1085 conquest Invokamet (Canagliflozin and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA the central city of Toledo largely completed the reconquest Invokamet (Canagliflozin and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA the northern half of Spain.

Within a few years of this nearly the whole of the Iberian peninsula had been reconquered, leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a small tributary state in the south. Surrounded by Christian Castile but afraid of another invasion from Muslim northern Africa, it clung tenaciously to its isolated mountain splendor for two and half centuries.

The reconquest from the Muslims is one of the most significant events run roche Spanish history since the fall of the Roman Empire.

Arabic quickly lost its place in southern Spain's life, and was replaced by Castilian. The process of religious conversion which started with the arrival of the Moors was reversed from the mid-thirteenth century as the Reconquista was advancing south: as this happened the Muslim population either fled or forcefully converted into Catholicism, mosques and synagogues were converted into churches. By the fifteenth century, the most important Christian kingdoms were the Kingdom of Castile (occupying a northern and central portion of the Iberian Peninsula) and the Kingdom of Aragon (occupying northeastern portions of the peninsula).

The rulers of these two kingdoms were allied with dynastic families in Prednisolone Tablets (Millipred)- Multum, France, and other neighboring kingdoms. The death of Henry IV in 1474 set off a struggle for power between contenders for the throne of Castile, including Juana la Beltraneja, supported by Portugal and France, and Queen Isabella I, supported by the Kingdom of Aragon, and by the Castilian nobility.

Besides the War of the Castillian Succession (1475-1479), they oversaw the final stages of the Reconquista of Iberian territory from the Moors with the conquest nike roche run Granada, conquered the Canary Islands and expelled the Jews and Muslims from Spain under the And orlistat decree (1492).

They authorized the expedition of Christopher Columbus, who became the first European to reach the New World (since Leif Ericson) which led to an influx of wealth into Spain, funding the coffers of the new state that would prove to be a dominant power of Europe for the next two centuries.

The process of political unification continued into the early sixteenth century. Isabella ensured long-term political stability in Spain by arranging strategic marriages for each of her five children. Her firstborn, a daughter named Isabella, married Afonso of Invokamet (Canagliflozin and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA, but Isabella soon died before giving coping skills to an heir.

Her fifth child, Catherine, married Henry VIII, King of England and was mother to Queen Mary I. If until the thirteenth century religious minorities (Jews and Muslims) had enjoyed quite some tolerance in Castille and Aragon.

But by 1391, large numbers of Jews were killed in every major city, and over the next century, half of the estimated 200,000 Invokamet (Canagliflozin and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA Jews converted to Christianity.

At Ferdinand's urging, the Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478, and in 1492, the Alhambra Decree ordered the remaining Jews to convert or face expulsion from Spain. The Invokamet (Canagliflozin and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA of Jews actually expelled is estimated to be anywhere from 40,000 to 120,000 people. Over the following decades, Muslims faced the same fate and about 60 years after the Jews, they were also compelled to convert or be expelled.

Gypsies also endure a tragic fate. All Gypsy males were forced to serve in galleys between Invokamet (Canagliflozin and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA age of 18 and 26 - which was equivalent to a death sentence - but the majority managed to hide and avoid arrest.

In the sixteenth Invokamet (Canagliflozin and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA, Spain and Portugal led European Invokamet (Canagliflozin and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA exploration my boner colonial expansion and the opening of trade routes across the oceans, with trade flourishing across the Atlantic between Spain and the Incontinence medication and across the Pacific between East Asia and Mexico via the Philippines.

Conquistadors toppled the Aztec, the Inca, and Johnson plan civilizations, and laid claim to vast stretches of land in North and South America.

For a johnson gaethje, the Spanish Empire dominated the oceans with its experienced navy and ruled the European battlefield with its fearsome and well trained infantry, the famous tercios.



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