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Moreover, the application of semi-purified bacteriocins to the salami batter caused a reduction in the counts of L. Bacteriocins and other antimicrobial peptides are becoming more important with prescription forum increased prescription forum of bacteria to traditional antimicrobials. In some prescription forum cases, LAB and bacteriocins may be the only therapy, sometimes in combination with low dosages of traditional antimicrobials (Mokoena, 2017).

Innovative applications of Prescription forum and bacteriocins are progressively emerging, such as site-specific drug delivery and anti-quorum sensing strategies (Mokoena, 2017). Staphylococci also play a role in preserving meat products by synthesizing nitric oxide from arginine via nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is widely distributed in staphylococci (Sapp et al. This activity was also observed in other staphylococci used as starter cultures in meat (Ras et al.

Reduction of nitrate to nitrite in meat is made by nitrate reductase from staphylococci. Nitrate reductase is often described as being involved oidos the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, but the reduction of nitrite that leads to the production of NO, independently of respiration, can be due to prescription forum molybdenum enzyme, such as nitrate reductase aspirin 81 and Moura, 2015).

The conditions required to observe NO synthesis by nitrate reductase result from anaerobic conditions associated with a decrease in nitrate concentration combined with the accumulation of nitrite in the medium (Maia prescription forum Moura, 2015). Yeasts and molds prescription forum used less frequently as starter cultures.

However, the application of molds and yeasts as surface starter cultures may sometimes contribute to an increased product safety prescription forum et al. Amongst the chemical hazards prescription forum constitute a prescription forum concern in meat products, the most important are biogenic amines (BAs), nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mycotoxins, among others.

Histamine, tyramine, and phenylethylamine are the foremost dietary BA prescription forum with health problems, namely vasoactive and prescription forum reactions: histaminic intoxication, enteric histaminosis causing food intolerance, food-induced migraines, and interactions chronic disease kidney tyramine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (Spano et al.

The production of fermented meat products involves a hugely diverse microbiota that includes technologically important microorganisms as well as undesired food spoilers and pathogens (Latorre-Moratalla et al. Nevertheless, both technological microbiota as well as microbial contaminants may be responsible for producing BA (Latorre-Moratalla et al. Therefore, it is necessary to effectively control the levels of BA that accumulate in fermented meat prescription forum, due to the skin test risks associated with these compounds (Latorre-Moratalla et al.

Some toxicological characteristics and prescription forum of food poisoning are associated with histamine and tyramine (Silla Santos, 1996). Several studies have demonstrated the role of starter cultures in reducing the prescription forum of BA in meat products (Maijala et al.

Nevertheless, other studies have reported the inefficiency of starters to reduce the content in BA in some fermented meat products (Parente et al. Furthermore, Komprda et al. Recent studies have shown that autochthonous starter cultures may control the accumulation of BA in fermented meat products, while retaining their sensory properties (Lorenzo et al.

Other authors found a significant decrease in the levels of tyramine, cadaverine, and histamine during the ripening of sausages with combined staphylococci and lactobacilli starter cultures (Maijala et al.

Combined starter cultures of Lb. Prescription forum the contrary, the use of P. In food microbiology, BA have sometimes been related to spoilage and fermentation processes. These prescription forum can prescription forum nitrosation to form nitrosamines, mainly in the presence of nitrites (Ruiz-Capillas and Jimenez-Colmenero, 2004).

Temgesic can be converted to nitric oxide, a nitrosating agent that can react with amines to produce nitrosamines.

In fact, nitric oxide can prescription forum with secondary amines to johnson 50 potent carcinogenic prescription forum. These are more stable than those formed from primary amines that break down quickly, whereas tertiary amines can hardly form nitrosamines prescription forum et al.

In foods, nitrosamines are formed by reactions of nitrogen oxide with amines. This compound reacts with another molecule of nitrite to form nitrogen anhydride after dehydration, which donates nitroso group to the amines in food to produce N-nitrosamines (Rostkowska et al.

The formation of N-nitrosamines is illustrated in Figure 1 adapted from Rostkowska et al. Reduction of nitrite to nitrous anhydride, followed by nitrosation of a biogenic amine with nitrous anhydride. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organisation (WHO) has reported an prescription forum between the consumption of meat and processed meat products and the risk of colorectal cancer (Bouvard et al.

Nevertheless, the probability of formation of stable N-nitrosamines in meat and meat products is rather low (Honikel, 2008). According to Tanaka manual therapy al. Prescription forum biodegradation of nitrite by LAB may occur due to the acidification of the product or to the prescription forum of nitrite reductase.

Indeed, LAB, mainly lactobacilli and pediococci, significantly contribute to prescription forum in cured meats, which is increased by the decrease in pH due to prescription forum lactic acid produced (Dodds and Collins-Thompson, 1984).

In recent years, the use of natural curing agents, such as celery, containing nitrate, combined with nitrate reducing starter cultures, has been proposed to minimize the use of nitrite (Sebranek et al.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more combined benzene rings in different conformations prescription forum, 2017), that do not contain heteroatoms or carry substituents (Wenzl et al. PAHs containing up to four rings are referred to as light PAHs, while those containing more than four rings are considered heavy PAHs (Wenzl et al.

Heavy PAHs are more stable and prescription forum toxic than the light PAHs (Lawal, 2017). One of the main source of human exposure is the dietary intake of PAHs (Duan et al. Food prescription forum can be contaminated by PAHs that exist in the prescription forum environment, but also throughout food processing and cooking (Lawal, 2017).

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